“The pavement is a product of a complex process that is essentially a combination of natural materials,” says Eric Kober, a professor of geology and earth sciences at Cornell University.
“The process is much more complex than you think.”
For example, there are thousands of individual pores, or “tubes,” that make up the pavement.
Some of the different types of asphalt are composed of carbon, which is naturally found in sand, to which cement is added.
“Carbon compounds are extremely complex, so it’s difficult to say how these materials actually work in the asphalt,” says Kober.
Another common compound is polycarbonate, which consists of two or more materials: sand and concrete.
In addition to the pores, polycarbonates can have different compositions, such as having one of both sand and a porous material like a plastic or metal.
“Polycarbonate is extremely important in the process of making asphalt because it’s the material that holds the polymer,” Kober says.
“That makes it very stable, so if it breaks down it can cause serious problems for the pavement.”
To make the asphalt, a mix of water and concrete is mixed.
Then, a series of processes are followed, including mixing the water with sand, then adding a mixture of cement, and finally, using the cement to form a cement-sand mixture.
“We use water and cement together because they’re both very important to the asphalt itself,” Kiber says.
The asphalt has a high thermal conductivity, which means it can withstand temperatures up to 4,000 degrees Fahrenheit (2,600 degrees Celsius), making it suitable for use on roads and highways.
It also has low corrosive properties, which makes it suitable to be used on sidewalks, which tend to be wet.
“Asphalt is a very resilient material,” Kber says.
It can also be used as a building material, especially if it is coated in a porous, porous polymer like polyurethane.
In fact, the company has built a coating of asphalt on an aluminum truck that has been used as part of a project to install solar-powered lights on roads in the United States.
The coating on the truck can withstand up to 3,000 gallons (11 liters) of water, Kober adds.
However, this coating doesn’t last as long as asphalt.
“It’s a bit like a wet sponge,” Kibber says, adding that asphalt is porous.
“It’s porous, so water gets into it, and then it starts absorbing more and more of the moisture.
It becomes a sponge.”
When a road is being paved, a number of chemicals are added to the water to make it less sticky and more conductive to the pavement surface.
Kiber notes that this process is done by the process called electrochemical vapor deposition, or EVM.
“When you pour water into a liquid or a gas, the liquid is mixed with some chemical and then the chemical gets dissolved in the water, and the mixture is mixed again,” Kueber says.
“Electrochemical vapor is what we do with asphalt, and it is used to make the new asphalt.”
The result is a substance that is slightly sticky, and a slightly flexible, but still solid and solid enough to carry a vehicle.
The coating on that vehicle will last up to six months, or about 10 years, depending on the vehicle.